People walk on Santa Monica Pier in Los Angeles, California (US) on August 12 | Photograph:
America’s population is more diverse and grew at a slower rate between 2010 and 2020, according to the country’s most recent census data, released this week. The document offers a detailed picture of how the United States has changed over the past decade and will help to redraw the political maps of the country.
The numbers could even determine who will control the House of Representatives in the next election in 2022, as the census results are used to distribute the 435 House seats among the 50 US states. Seats are reallocated every ten years, after counting the population. The votes of the Electoral College that selects the US president every four years are evenly distributed among the states according to their population.
Census shows that in the United States no ethnic or racial group is now dominant among those under the age of 18 and the number of the white population has declined for the first time, demonstrating an increasingly diverse and multiracial country . Find out what have been the major demographic changes of the past decade in the United States:
Growth at a slower pace
In total, the population of the United States has grown by 7.4% over the past decade, reaching 331,449,281 million on the so-called “Census Day” of April 1, 2020. The growth rate was the fastest. low since the 1930s, when the country was going through the Great Depression.
The slowdown in US growth is more easily seen in local data. “This decrease is evident at the local level, where about 52% of counties in the United States reported a decrease in their population in the 2020 census compared to their population in 2010,” said Marc Perry, senior demographer for the Census Bureau.
the white population has declined
The white population remains the largest ethnic or racial group in the United States, despite an 8.6% decrease since 2010. Nationwide, 204.3 million people (61.6% of the population) have declared themselves white only. The number of residents who identified as white in combination with another group was 235.4 million.
The population of two or more races (also referred to as the multiracial population) has changed significantly since 2010. The number of people who identified as two or more races more than tripled from 9 million in 2010 to 33.8 million in 2020.
Demographers stress that racial comparisons between the 2010 and 2020 censuses must be made with care, taking into account changes to questions about Hispanic and racial origin and how responses from the most recent survey have been made. been coded.
In the American press, specialists point to the aging of the white population, changes in the way people identify themselves, higher birth rates among certain minorities, as the reasons for the reduction in the group of “only whites”. immigration, among others.
Fewer children, more adults
The proportion of children in the US population has declined, due to the declining birth rate, while the proportion of adults has increased. In 2020, adults over 18 represent three quarters of the population (258.3 million), an increase of 10% compared to 2010.
At the same time, the under-18 population has grown from 74.2 million to 73.1 million over the past decade.
“More than three-quarters (77.9%) of the US population is 18 and over,” says Andrew Roberts, head of the Census Bureau’s Bureau of Sex and Age Statistics for the Population Division. “The adult population has grown faster than the country as a whole. In comparison, the population under the age of 18 was 73.1 million in 2020, which is a decrease of 1.4% from what has was calculated during the 2010 census. “
The declining youth population in a rapidly aging country poses a demographic challenge for the future, says William Frey, a researcher at the Metropolitan Policy Program at the Brookings Institute. “As the large baby boomer population ages beyond the age of its core workforce, both the youth and the working-age population will grow modestly at best,” he says.
More Asians and Hispanics
Over the past decade, Asia’s population has grown by about a third to reach 24 million people in 2020, and the Hispanic or Latino population, which includes people of all races, has grown by about a quarter in the States. United, reaching 62.1 million people. .
During the same period, the population of non-Hispanic or Latin American origin has increased by 4.3% since 2010.
Hispanics have driven population growth against the backdrop of slow national growth. Just over half of the total population growth in the United States was the result of the increase in the Hispanic population.
“Hispanics, Asians, people of two or more races, these are the only groups minors grow up in,” said William Frey. “Many of these minorities are important to our future growth, not only for the child population, but for the future of our workforce.”
Metropolitan areas have increased
There have also been changes in the distribution of the population in the United States as a whole over the past decade. The population of metropolitan areas grew by 9% between 2010 and 2020, meaning that 86% of the population lived in metropolitan areas of the United States in 2020, up from 85% in 2010.
Of the 384 metropolitan areas in the United States, 312 gained more residents when comparing 2010 and 2020. At the same time, 72 metropolitan areas lost residents.
The largest city in the country remains New York, with 8.8 million inhabitants. The fastest growing US metropolitan area between 2010 and 2020 was The Villages in Florida, which saw a 39% increase from 93,000 to 130,000 people.